Wednesday, 17 September 2014

Australian Shepherd

The origin of the Australian Shepherd is not definitely known but despite their name, they were thought to have come from the Pyrenees region (between Spain and France). The local Basque herders migrated to other countries in search of work, Australia being one of these. In the early 1900's, Australia was exporting sheep to America by the boatloads and these little blue dogs acquired their name as they came off the boats with their masters.

These Basque dogs were similar to the dogs that traveled to the New World with the Spanish sheep and resembled today's Australian Shepherds. They were renowned for their herding ability, protective nature and intense devotion to their master.

As the Spanish expanded into the New World, so did their sheep and dogs. These dogs prospered in the American south west and became known as New Mexican Shepherds. They were larger than the little Basgue dogs. They remained isolated there until the Gold Rush and the rising American wool market when the wildly coloured dogs started to attract attention. These dogs bred true to type and in time were crossed with other good working dogs to develop the present day Australian Shepherds.

The Australian Shepherd Club of America (ASCA) was founded in 1957 and today they are a recognized breed in most countries.

Tuesday, 9 September 2014


The first litter of puppies was born at Bernegården the 09/05/80. My very first male, Ch Alphof’s Athos and the female Alphof’s Gita Natanja, sired this litter. It resulted in one champion Nuch Such Bernegården’s Aron, and one CAC winner.  The same male, and Ch Bitte sired the second litter the year after. This litter resulted in 4 champions; amongst them two who even became group placed. These dogs were all imported from Sweden, but with direct Swiss bloodline,  as Ch Alphof’s Athos was a son out of ch King V Liebegg, and Ch Bitte was a daughter of Ch Odette V Rigihang, both imported from Switzerland to Sweden.

Ch Mar Don’s Cottonelle

Even with the success so early producing champions, I was not very happy for the, in my opinion, lack of quality I did find in the breed. This made me look out of the Scandinavian countries to try to find a Saint Bernard that had the confirmation, balance and type I did consider the breed should have.
And then come my first American import to Norway, Ch Mar Don’s Cottonelle. This female became a” flying start” to a line who so far has produced 166 Bernegården’s champions, (2003) several group winning dogs as well as several Best in Show winners and number one all breed dogs.  Cottonelle was first mated to the Dutch imported male, Ch Helmut van Wijk Heim, this male producing more then 30 champions, a very important stud dog for the breed in the early years of 1980.
This litter gave me two champions and three more who were CAC’s winners.

One of the champions was Int. Ch Bernegården’s Gulliver.
This dog had a big influence on the breed in Norway as well as outside the country; he did produce 15 champions and several CAC’s winners.  The line I further got from Gulliver has been very important in my breeding program. Most known are Int Ch Nord Ch Bernegården’s Laramie, top Saint Bernard in Norway in 1986 and 1988,  (sired 10 champions and several CAC’s winners)  Int Ch Nuch Such Bernegården’s All Alone, top Saint Bernard in Norway in 1990,  (sired 6 champions and several CAC’s winners, this dog died sadly far too young)  and Nuch Such Bernegården’s Vagabond, the three of them Speciality Best In Show winners, the two first one’s group winners and Best in Show winners.
A daughter of Ch Bernegården’s Gulliver, Nuch Such Bernegården’s Yerba was exported to New Zealand, and became one of the foundation bitches on Bernedale kennel.

Int. Ch Bernegården’s Gulliver

A daughter of Yerba, Ch Bernedale Britt Marit, became an Aust & NZ Ch and was
Australia’s first Grand Champion Saint Bernard. Her son again, by ch Bernegården’s Khedive has just in these days become a Grand Champion, this making Bernedale Britt Marit the only Saint Grand Champion to have also produced offspring to gain such a title in Australia (2003). Bernedale Britt Marit is sired by Ch Bernegården’s Frodo. This has resulted in 50 Champions born at Bernedale kennel in either Australia or New Zealand, including 6 Aust & NZ Champions & 4 Grand Champions directly from my exports (2003).
A Champion daughter sired by Ch Bernegården’s Laramie, Ch Bernegården’s Wind Song, was exported to England, kennel Fastacre. Another daughter, Ch Bernegården’s Wild Magic became a BIS speciality winner in Norway. One of Laramie’s most influence litter for further breeding in Norway become the Bernegården’s first R-litter  with amongst them Bernegården’s Rigoletto, Bernegården’s Rebecca and Bernegården’s Regina.  Rigoletto sired Nuch GBCh Bernegården’s Buckpasser who went to kennel Abbotsbury in England.  Buckpasser did produce several champions, as well as being the grand father of the CRUFT winner in 1996,  GB Ch Abbotsbury Ailanthus. Buckpasser’s litter sister,
Int Ch Nuch Such Bernegården’s Butterfly produced also several champions in Norway and in Sweden,
and mated to Ch Bernegården’s Fellini Amorouso, a son out of Bernegården’s Rebecca,  did she produce Int Ch Nuch Such Bernegården’s Big Banjo, a shorthaired group winner. Banjo was mated to Int Ch Nuch Such Bernegården’s Petite Fleur, a daughter of USA imported Int Ch Nuch Such Stoan’s Zephyr V Shorecliff,  and in this litter was the famous shorthaired Multi Ch Bernegården’s Ragtime born. (Mother of Petite Fleur is also a half sister of Gulliver.)

Bernegården’s Regina was mated back to her grandfather, Ch Bernegården’s Gulliver, and this litter gave as result, one puppy,Ch Bernegården’s All Alone. All Alone, produced together with his half sister, (also a Gulliver daughter), Ch Bernegården’s Joker Adamson, who was exported to Bernedale kennel in New Zealand, a dog who should become the one to give the breed in New Zealand as well as in Australia the correct head type. Joker himself became also a group winner as well as a Best in Show winner. Joker sired 10 champions. A daughter out of Ch Bernegården’s Vagabond, Bernegården’s Golden Copy went also to New Zealand, and the litter sister Bernegården’s Golden Queen went to Abbotsbury in England. (Mother to these two, also a half sister of Gulliver) Another half sister of Gulliver, Nuch Such Bernegården’s Ophelia was mated to USA Ch Nuch Such Opdyke’s Jerrod.
From this litter was Bernegården’s Troja exported to Belgium.

This female become the most winning Saint Bernard in Belgium the year she was out in the ring.
One of her son’s, Int Ch Belg Ch Ned Ch Lux Ch Nuch Rodan V Maltahaus was imported back to Bernegården’s kennel in Norway.  One of Rodan’s son’s Bernegården’s Harvey, was sold to Barandi kennel in England. (Producer of champions.) Another male from the same litter, Int Ch Nuch Such Lux Ch Belg Ch USA ch, Bernegården’s Hamilton was later sold to USA (Hamilton became also a group and Bis winner, and a producer of Champions)

A son of Hamilton, USA Ch Bernegården’s Quest, (mother Int Ch Nuch Such Belg Ch Vienna Van’t Hof Ter Quinni, litter sister to the famous Valour) and another son of Rodan, USA Ch Bernegården’s Like a Dream, (mother Bernegården’s Faworita, a daughter from Multi Ch Bernegården’s Mascara)
are both on the top 20 lists from the Saint Bernard’s in USA these days.(2003)

Int Ch Nuch Such Lux Ch Belg Ch USA ch 

Bernegården’s Hamilton 

A litter brother of Troja, Int Ch Nuch Such Iceland Champion Bernegården’s Tamlin was sold to Island, and became there a Best in Show winner. Another litter sister, Bernegården’s Theodora, was exported pregnant to Bernedale kennel in New Zealand.This litter resulted in 12 puppies from where 8 become champions in either New Zealand or Australia. Amongst them the well-known Best in show winner, Grand Champion Bernedale Incredible. Father to this litter was Ch Stoan’s Zephyr V Shorecliff.

Theodora became the best producing female in New Zealand and Australian breed history. Theodora was also mated to Ch Bernegården’s Khedive, a half brother of Valentin. From this litter comes Ch Bernedale’s Call Me Beau, best in show winner at the 1999 Perth Royal show.Beau won many Best in Shows (All Breeds) he also won runner up best in show at Darwin Royal, and he was also awarded Best of Breed at every Major royal around Australia in addition to his multiple Best in Show awards in Melbourne. Beau was also the first Saint in Melbourne to achieve his Grand Champion title
and is still the most highly achieved Saint Bernard. His father Khedive has so far produced more then 30 champions in New Zealand and Australia. The litter Theodora-Khedive resulted in 6 champions.

Int Ch Nord Ch GB Ch 
Bernegården’s J.R

Ch Mar Don’s Cottonelle was also mated to the American imported dog, Ch Castlewood’s Yamaha,
a combination who produced 10 champions as well as 2 CAC’s winners. One of these males, Int Ch Nord Ch GB Ch Bernegården’s J.R. went to kennel Fastacre in England. This dog sired champions, in Norway and Sweden, as well as in New Zealand. The puppies that was born in New Zealand, was sired by frozen semen export. One male, Ch Fastacre Cotton Duke, was exported to kennel Tai Yuan in New Zealand. Cotton Duke sired the most winning Saint Bernard ever in New Zealand history, Grand Champion Tai Yuan’s True To Form. A litter brother of J.R, Nuch Such Bernegården’s Jupiter,
sired together with the female Anan’ke, (who was a father-daughter breeding on my Ch Alpohf’s Athos,) the longhaired female, Erstads Bonni, who became the mother of the very famous longhaired male, Multi Ch Bernegården’s Valentin.

The father of Valentin was the very influenced stud dog in the breed, Opdyke’s Shadow producing 36 champions. Valentin himself wrote breed history by becoming the number one all breed dog in Norway in 93. This male was " Number one Saint Bernard, number 2 working dog and number 9 all breed dog in Norway 1992, at the age of one year. Number one Saint Bernard, number one working dog, and number one all breed dog in Norway 1993, at the age of two years. Finishing his show carrier at the age of 2 years and 10 months. Doing a comeback after his 8th birthday getting as result, Number One Saint Bernard Veteran,number one all breed veteran, number three working dog, and number ten all breed dog in Norway 1999, almost 9 years old when he was retired.

Multi Ch Bernegården’s Valentin

Valentin had 38 groups first and 32 best in show in his lifetime, including Bis speciality as well as all breed veterans. At the age of 7 year Valentin was entered at the American National in the veteran class, winning this class, honoured with a selection of merit. At the trailer show, he also took a Best in Show.
Valentin is out of a litter of 10, where 7 became champions,the three last ones where sadly enough never showed. He produced himself 16 champions as well as several CAC’s winners.

Valentin’s most known son is Multi ch Bernegården’s Montgomery, (mother is Valentin’s half sister, Bernegården’s Chardonnay) a group and Best in show winning dog, top Saint Bernard, number one working breed dog, and number two all breed dog in Norway in 2001 Best in Show winner in Norway as well as in Belgium, and getting third best in Show in Euro-show in Kortrijk under Harry Jordan,
as well as being the group winner at the world show in Amsterdam last year.(2002)

Valentin was also mated to Ch Bernegården’s Petite Fleur,  and here was Multi Ch Bernegården’s Mascara born. This longhaired female became the most winning Saint Bernard female and most titled female in Belgian history. A female who took several group placements and with a second all breed best in show as best result. This female became the start of kennel Van Hof Ten Eynder's show carrier in Belgium. Another daughter of Valentin, Int ch Ned Ch Belg Ch Lux Ch Bernegården’s Ivory,
was exported to kennel Always Friends in Nederland, where she did became one of the foundation females in this kennel. Her most known son is Ch Always Friends Chico- Lafayette,
who is the only Nederland born Saint Bernard to win an all breed best in Show in Nederland.
Father of Chico is Int Ch Ned Ch Lux Ch Bernegården’s Lafayette. (half brother of Harvey who is in England, and litter brother to Ch Like a Dream who is in USA) Ch Bernegården’s Petite Fleur did also produce a litter with Opdyke’s Shadow, the father of Valentin, here producing another Best in Show winner, Int Ch Nuch Such Bernegården’s Going for Gold,  top Saint Bernard in Norway in 1994. A half sister of Petite Fleur, Belg ch Bernegården’s Quanta la Mehra, was exported to kennel Van’t Hof ter Quinni in Belgium. She became the foundation female in this kennel, and the start of this kennel’s line of producing champions

Petite Fleur’s most known off spring is Multi ch Bernegården’s Ragtime. This dog became the most winning Saint Bernard ever in European history,  getting 20 different titles to his name, winning 13 Best in shows in different European countries, becoming the most winning working breed dog in Belgium, Nederland France,  Luxembourg and Portugal the same year.  Amongst his Best in show wins were the BIS in Porto,  at the Portuguese kennel club’s 100 years jubilee show, The Best in Show at the Euro-show in Kortrijk in Belgium, Best in Show in Austria, Second Best in Show in St.Gallen in Switzerland, Best in Show in Lille in France, including the second Best in Show at the Longchamp show in Paris.

Amongst all the champion’s Ragtime has produced, is the J-litter the most known litter. Mother to this litter, Ch Opdyke’s Grace, top Brood bitch in England 2002. From this litter came GB Ch Bernegården’s Journey, exported to kennel Snowfordhill in England, and Nuch GB Ch Bernegården’s Jacona, exported to kennel Barandi in England. Two of the litter brother’s, went to USA, and became
USA Ch Bernegården’s Johnnie Walker and USA Ch Bernegården’s Jackson. To Hungary went the European Ch Hungary Ch Int Ch Bernegården’s Jack Daniels, and to Israel went the Best In Show winner, Israeli Ch Bernegården’s Jazz Man. Belgian Ch Bernegården’s Justice is still on Bernegården kennel, and two more from this litter has even them CAC’s. The three last ones even from this litter are sadly enough never being showed. Another son from Ragtime, born in Belgium, and who was exported to USA, became very fast an American champion as well as being the most titled working Saint Bernard ever in American history. USA CH & WDCH Xmaxkris van 't Hof ten Eynder, CD, CDX, UD, TD, NAP, NJP, OAP, OJP, MXP, MJP, DD, VCD1, VDC2, HF, PE Hall of Fame and Plateau of Excellence. Ragtime was also used with success at Slaton’s kennel in USA with several USA titled champions.

Int ch Ned Ch Lux Ch Belg Ch 

Bernegården’s Ambassador

Wardana kennel in England did import Bernegården’s Xanthippe in whelp to Ch Bernegården’s Ragtime. In this litter was Ch Wardana Raggamuffyn born. She was later mated to Int ch Ned Ch Lux Ch Belg Ch Bernegården’s Ambassador, a half brother of Ch Valentin. This became the start of Wardana’s breeding-program. This litter gave as result Ch Wardana Mr Raggamuffyn Man.
Raggamuffyn Man becomes the BOB winner at the Scottish St Bernard’s Club show in 2002.
Raggamuffyn Man took also group one and a Best In Show in Belgium in 2002, and a litterbrother of his mother Raggamuffin, Wardana Run Em Regged got a group one the same year in Luik in Belgium, as well as getting BOB shorthaired at the world show in Amsterdam 2002.
Both Journey and Jacona has been used successful in the breeding program in England. Journey by already having produced GB champions, and Jacona by producing Barandi Spymaster, who so far has two Best in shows in England and two reserve Best in Shows. The latest litter to Jacona was sired by Multi Ch Bernegården’s Montgomery, the puppies already doing very well in the ring.
One of these youngsters, Barandi Toto’s Star, has got a working breed puppy 3. Montgomery’s offspring is now in the age to start gaining their titles, the youngest one becoming an American champion at the age of 12 months, USA Ch Bernegården’s Touched By An Angel. A shorthaired daughter of Ragtime, Ch Bernegården’s Brooke did together with the Austrian born male, Ch Puma Van Fugerhof, produce a litter of puppies on kennel Van’t Hof Ter Quinni in BelgiumThis litter gave as a result several CAC’s winners as well as champions. The most famous Saint Bernard ever born in Belgium is from this litter, Multi Ch Valour Van’t Hof Ter Quinni. This dog was exported to Argentina, became the most winning Saint Bernard ever in the South American and Argentinean history,
becoming number one all breed dog in Argentina in 2002, winning 60 Best in shows, and, as his grandfather Ragtime, putting 20 different titles to his name.

The youngest champion daughter after Valour is Polish, Croatian and Tjeckisklovakian Champion Bernegården’s Vesta. (Mother a daughter of Valentin) A Hamilton daughter from kennel Van’t Hof Ter Quinni in Belgium, Nuch Such Yellow Rose Van’t Hof Ter Quinni was exported back to Norway,
and has there become one of the highest winning females in the breed by getting several group ones
as well as several group places and with a Best In Show as best result.

Exports from Bernegården’s has gone to USA, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Denmark, Sweden,
Finland, Iceland, Spain, Nederland, Belgium, England, France, Portugal, Greece, Hungary, Poland,
Estonia, Israel, South Africa, Brazil, Argentina and Rumania.

Monday, 1 September 2014


All owners and breeders have their individual preferences,
though the basics remain the same.

Lhasa Apso's do accumulate mucus in the corner of their eyes.
This is of no great concern unless there is excessive redness or
the dog is rubbing its eyes or the mucus has a foul odour.
Gently wipe away any mucus with a tissue or lint-free cloth
each day to avoid acculmation of matter
and subsequent eye infections.
N.B. Some lhasa's tend to tear, more excessivly than others,
there could be several reasons for this which may require
veterinary investigation.
To help to prevent staining of the hair under the eye,
a smear of vaseline, just under the
corner of the eye, going down towards the mouth may help.
For mucus which has hardened,
soak a cotton wall ball with warm water and squeeze
so that the mucus is softened by the water.
Then wipe away.
Another option is to use a fine tooth comb and comb downwards
away from the eyes.
Your apso's eyes should be clear and bright.
Apso can suffer from eye problems.

Eyes should be checked daily,
occasionally grass seeds, hair and other foreign bodies,
may find their way into your apso's eyes and cause
extreme irritation.
Should this occur then flush with eye wash or tepid tap water
and seek veterinary advice.
As the apso gets older, you may notice some cloudiness
of the eye which can be due to cataracts forming.
Cataracts occur when the eye lens inside becomes opaque.
Cataracts can impair vision.
If your lhasa incurs an eye injury, keep moist and
seek veterinary attention IMMEDIATELY failure to do so can
result in the loss of your dogs eye.
If any substance gets into the eyes, i.e. soap, grit etc
flush the eyes with either eye wash or warm tap water.
If squinting, tearing or redness of the eyes persist,
then once again seek veterinary attention.

Thursday, 21 August 2014


Description:  The Dalmatian is a distinctively spotted dog; poised and alert; strong, muscular and active; free of shyness; intelligent in expression. He is capable of great endurance, combined with speed.  A friendly, outgoing dog,  he will make a excellent companion for anyone who has the time to exercise and train him.  He will bond very closely with his owner, more so than other breeds and will exhibit separation anxiety when left alone. Dalmatian puppies are born all white and begin to develop their spots by ten to fourteen days.
History:   His name is taken from Dalmatia, part of the former Yugoslavia.  Coming from Dalmatia, a region on the Adriatic Sea north of Albania.  It was in Britain that he became well established as a dog of the British aristocracy, running alongside their horse-drawn carriages.  He has been used as a watchdog, draft dog, shepherd, ratter, bird dog, trail hound, retriever, circus and stage performer and of course as a firehouse mascot.  His registration doubled following the 1959 film "101 Dalmatians."

Friday, 8 August 2014



The shar-pei is a compact dog of medium size, square in profile with a well proportioned head slightly but not overly large for the body. It has a harsh coat and loose skin.


Calm, independent, affectionate, aloof, loves company.


18-20 Inches at the withers


Large in proportion to the body, a flat skull,broad,moderate stop. Length from nose to stop approximately equal to length from stop to occiput.Fine wrinkles on top of the head tapering down the muzzle. Muzzle broad and full with no tapering. The lips and top of the muzzle well padded, causing a slight bulge at the base of nose. Bottom jaw appears wider than the top due to padding of lips, nose large and wide.


Dark, medium size almond shaped with a frowning expression. Amber and lighter colours permissible in paler coated dogs. Free from entropion.


Very small, rather thick, triangular in shape, slightly rounded at the tip and set high on the skull with tips pointing towards the eyes. Set well forward over eyes wide apart and close to the skull


Medium length, strong full set well on shoulders with loose skin under the neck.


Height at withers approximately equal to the length from point of shoulders to point of buttock. Depth of brisket approximately half of height at withers. Chest broad and deep, back short and strong.Topline dips slightly behind withers then rises over short broad loin. Adults have moderate wrinkling over the shoulders and base of tail


Rounded, narrowing to a fine point. Base set very high. May be carried high and curved, carried in a tight curl or curved over.


Muscular shoulders, well laid and sloping, elbows close to body. Forelegs straight moderate length, good bone, pasterns slightly sloping, strong and flexible.


Muscular strong, hocks without excessive wrinkle.


Moderate size, compact, toes wellknuckled.Fore and hind dewclaws may be removed.


Extremely harsh straight and off standing on the body but flatter on the limbs.No undercoat.There are three coat types horsecoat which is extremely short and may give you a rash if rubbed against, brush coat which varies from around half inch to inch. Bear coat which is much longer giving the appearance of a chow chow, and this coat is not to breed standard although does look very nice.


Tongue, roof of mouth, gums and flews solid bluish black. Pink or spotted tongue is undesirable. Dogs with self coloured pigment and amber or light eyes would have a lavender tongue. Teeth strong with a perfect regular scissor bite ie, upper teeth closely overlapping lower teeth and set square to the jaw. Padding of lower lip should not be so excessive so as to interfere with the bite.


Free, vigorous and balanced, rear single tracking is normal at fast trot.


All solid colours, black and various shades of fawn more desirable for the show ring.

Males to have two apparently normal descended testicles.

About the breed Shar-pei

The Shar-pei is believed to have originated in southern China and has been traced to the han dynasty ( 206 BC - AD 220 ).

It was originally used to hunt wild boar, protect livestock and guard the homes of its owners.

For centuries the Shar-pei was a particularly prized for its intelligence, if this trait was not so evident then the dog was slaughtered and eated.

In 1947 taxes were so high(bit like now) that few people could afford to keep a pet and the chinese government ordered all dogs to be destroyed. Fanciers in Hong Kong are credited with saving the breed.

It is believed that the Chow Chow has played a big part part in the Shar-pei,both breeds sharing a blue tongue.

The Tibetan Mastiff and other Mastiff breeds have also played there part in the Shar-pei.

The Pyrenean mountain dog could also have some part to play as they are born with double dew claws as do some Shar-pei.

A close ancestor of the breed is the Dah-let fighting dog. It's jaws were big and powerful and it's stiff coarse coat was uncomfortable to hold onto making other dogs let go.


All breeds have potential health problems, here are a few associated with the Shar pei.

This is were the eyelids roll in on itself rubbing the cornea and irritating the dogs eyes. If left untreated the scarring caused by the rubbing on the cornea can make the dog go blind.

A simple eye tack will sort this out. Do not have a puppy operated on for entropion until it has finished growing as you can cause more harm than good.
Try to use a Shar pei friendly vet who knows about the breed.


Due to shar pei having small ears this makes the ear canal very narrow and sometimes causes infections.

Routine cleaning is advised, but never poke things down your dogs ears.
A simple ear cleaning solution either from your pet store or vet will do fine.

Signs of a sore ear are shaking the head, scratching, hot to the touch, redness and sometimes  a smell and discharge. At this point take your dog to see your vet as tablets will also be needed for the infection.


A common skin complaint. It is caused by a mite that lives on the skin and irritates the dog making him scratch and become sore and moth eaten.
Use a prescribed shampoo from your vet.


Sometimes a yeast infection can cause your Shar pei to have a bad odour, consult your vet.
This is were the knee cap slips out of place and causes the dog to limp.
The condition can be put right with a opperation, but the dog should not be bred from as this can be a hereditary condition.
This can kill your dog within half an hour. It is common in deep chested breeds.

The stomach swells from the gasses that are in there then twists on itself cutting of the blood supply.

Signs that you dog has this are he may look distressed and will probably be stood with his back arched. The stomach will be hard to touch.
You must get to the vet ASAP.

Feeding your dog 2-3 times a day instead of one large meal will help this condition, also limit food and water post exercise.
Feed dishes elevated so as dog is not bending down to eat.
Any dog showing the signs of this ailment should not be bred from.

The dog will appear unwell, have a high temprature,and will not want to move.
Swelling of the hock joints and painful swollen muzzle, there may be vomiting and diarrheoa. All this usually starts in dogs less than 24 months but can happen at any time.

The fevers can last up to 36 hours. Keep the dog in a quite place and give something to bring the temperature down, an asprin every 8 hours normally helps.

Amyloid is a stress protein which is normally excreted in the urine, however in some Shar pei it builds up in the spaces around the kidney cells and eventually chokes them to death.

This condition is similar to one in humans called Familial mediterranean fever.
A low protein diet is advisable to try to eradicate this problem.